TISS MA in Human Resources Management and Labour Relations Question Papers SECTION III,IV,V 2016

TISS MA in Human Resources Management and Labour Relations Question Papers SECTION III,IV,V 2016.
TISS MA in Human Resources Management and Labour Relations Question Papers SECTION III,IV,V 2016 – 2017


DIRECTIONS: Questions in this Section are based on the content of a passage. Read the passages carefully, and choose the best answer to each question. Answer all questions following the passage on the basis of what is stated or implied in the passage.

QUESTIONS 31 to 40

It is time to think again about the objectives the small-scale industry policy was intended to achieve; and to see how these can best be realized now by large or small firms, in conditions of faster technological change and liberalization. Can new forms of decentralized production and interdependence between smaller firms or between small and large firms, offer a better way to achieve industrial growth and jobs? The worldwide interest in decentralised production and industrial districts has been sparked largely by the seminal works of Michael Piore and Charles Sabel, and by debates about the potential for ‘flexible specialization’ especially but not only in local clusters of firms with complementary products, technologies and skills. Piore and Sabel introduced the notion of flexible specialization to explain why industrial economies dominated by the now traditional methods of fordist mass production, ‘deskilled’ labour, hierarchical management, and ruthless competition between profit-maximizing firms, were failing behind countries like Japan, Germany and Italy, which were opting for more flexible production methods and taking advantage of new technologies and more cooperation forms of social organization. Other writers have criticized or refined the notions of flexible specialization, clusters, industrial districts and discussed relevance to developing countries.
There are large and small-scale variants of flexible specialization. Large German firms like Thyssen achieve innovation and flexibility by decentralizing decision making within the firm. In Japan, large firms do the same, and they subcontract work to small firms bound to them in long-term relationships of trust. Flexible specialization in a large firm means, among other things, that decision-making is decentralized, not just to managers of departments or profit centres within the firm, but to workers who are expected to take an interest in the product and
its market, and who constantly discuss quality and innovation with technicians and managers

in a informal atmosphere, without hierarchical barriers to the free exchange of ideas. This can go with experiments like autonomous work groups or quality circles. Managers’ aim at ‘driving fear out of the workplace’, solving problems rather than disciplining workers: ‘The threat of being fired instills fear which inhibits learning and systematic improvement; furthermore, incentive, quota, and piecework systems of pay will foster competition rather than teamwork among workers and undermine morale because of their inherently arbitrary nature.’ That is the large-firm variant of flexible specialization. But Piore and Sabel were
more interested in explaining the success of networks of small or medium firms in certain regions. These firms work closely together, even with firms which sometimes compete with them, in local networks producing a range of similar or complementary products. Piore and Sabel called these networks ‘industrial districts’, a term they took from the early twentiethcentury economist Alfred Marshall, who wrote:
When an industry has thus chosen a locality for itself, it is likely to stay there long: so great are the advantages which people following the same skilled trade get from near neighborhood to one another. The mysteries of the trade become no mysteries; but are as if were in the air, and children learn many of them unconsciously. Good work is rightly appreciated, inventions and improvements in machinery, in processes and the general organization of business have their merits promptly discussed, if one man starts a new idea, it is taken up by others and combined with suggestions of their own, and thus it become the source of further new idea. And presently, subsidiary trade grows up in the neighbor-hood, supplying it with implements and materials, organizing its traffic, and in many ways conducing to the economy of its materials. In Marshall’s industrial district, individual firms pay for expensive machinery by carrying out specialized tasks for their neighbor, and there is constant market for skill. Employees are apt to resort to any place where they are likely to find a good choice of workers with the special skills which they require; while men seeking employment naturally go to places where there are many employers who need such a skill as theirs and where therefore it is likely to find a good market. The owner of an isolated factory, even if he has access to plentiful supply of general labour, is often put to great shifts for want of
some special skilled labour; and a skilled workman, when thrown out of employment in
it, has no easy refuge. Marshall described both the strengths of industrial districts and also their limitations, like over- specialization and slowness in adapting to changing markets. In the post-30 years or so, new technologies, products and attitudes towards labour have revived and transformed the industrial district, allowing smaller firms to compete with and even overtake large firms, adapting quickly to changing conditions and filling market niches with high-quality goods, while providing high levels of employment at high levels of employment at high wages. This in turn has led to revival of interest in Marshall’s model,
and the potential and limitations of industrial districts in the very different conditions of the late twentieth century. Giacomo Becattini defines a ‘Marshallian Industrial District’ as:

TISS MA in Human Resources Management and Labour Relations Question Papers SECTION III,IV,V 2016

“A socio-territorial entity which is characterized by the active coexistence of an open community of people and a segmented population of firms. Since the community of
people and the population of firms live in the same geographical area, they will crisscross one another. Production activities and daily life over-lap. The community is open because the industrial nature of the district and the related problems of increasing returns imply incoming and outgoing flows of goods and people. The population of firms is segmented in the sense that different phases of the process of production are divided between the firms, each of which specializes in one of a few phases. … Exchange relations and hierarchical relations intertwine and alternate with no discontinuities. The district is at the same time the realm of the liveliest competition, and the realm of co-operation, custom and informal institutions.”
The best known examples of these new-style industrial districts are in north central Italy (which Italian, following Arnaldo Bagnasco, calls the ‘Third Italy’), especially the region of Emili – Romagna: It (flexible specialization) is seen in the networks of technologically sophisticated, highly flexible manufacturing firms in central and northwestern Italy. Flexible specialization is a strategy of permanent innovation: accommodation to ceaseless change, rather than an
effort to control it. This strategy is based on flexible multi-use equipment; skilled
workers; and the creation, through politics, of an industrial community that restricts the forms of competitions to that favouring innovation. For these reasons, the spread of flexible specialization amounts to a revival of craft forms of productions that were emorginated at the first industrial divide in the nineteenth century, leading to fordist mass production). Flexible specialization is both a master of (S/C – 454) and personal and political choice: if workers have any choice, they will no longer put up with tailorist management and the working conditions of mass production. The ‘flexibly – specialized’ large firm is like a federation of small firms, with centralized arrangements for marketing, research and development, and investment. Small firms in an industrial district achieve similar economies of scale through cooperation, dividing up the stages of manufacturing and marketing among themselves, sharing services and forming consortia: so the whole industrial district sometimes acts almost as a single large firm, with its own presence and
reputation in the market. Firms around the town of Prato specialize in textiles and textile machinery; around Carpi, in knitwear, around Modena, in machine-building, especially agricultural machinery. In the area like ‘Third Italy’, the most successful and dynamic firms are small or middlesized. This is a relatively classless part of Italy; there are few social barriers between employers and workers, who are used to discussing quality and innovation with each
other. Workers are constantly solving new problems and learning skills. There is a strong union presence, though unions have had to adapt to new working practices. This is sometimes called the ‘Emilion model’ because it has been most successful in the Emilia – Romagna region of the ‘Third Italy’.

Sobel describes it as “ a system of high – technology cottage industry that does in a
decentralized way that large innovation companies like the Thyssen specialty steel division do within the framework of huge organizations; create new demand by filling needs that potential customers have only begun to suspect were there… The innovative capacity of this type of (small) firm depends on its flexible use of technology; its close relations with other, similarly innovative firms in the same and adjacent sectors; and above all on the close collaboration of workers with different kinds of expertise. These firms practice boldly and spontaneously the fusion of conception and execution, abstract and practical knowledge, that only a few exceptional giant firms such as Thyssen have so far been able to achieve on a grand scale, and then…. only by disregarding the rules of Fordism”. The right balance between cooperation and competition depends on trust between entrepreneurs, and between employers and employees: ‘Mistrust freezes the technological progress of a whole sector, trust fosters it.’ This reduces the risk for those who start their own firms or develop new products, since ‘these decisions are taken, within a framework fmutual cooperation, in hope that, should things not work out, all would not be lost’. An
entrepreneur can become an employee again, or can produce for other firms. Even if
individual firms cannot offer the same job security as a large firm, ‘people who live and work in the district feel confident, even in adverse circumstance, that they will be able to find a job in the area……’ Even if no one (or almost no one) is completely free of uncertainty, yet everyone can feel fairly certain of not being overwhelmed by it. The network of social and economic relations within the industrial district gives workers and their employers most of the advantages of a large firm, without many of the disadvantages. The ‘Third Italy’ may not be Utopia – as Sabel almost depicts it – but it is undoubtedly a success story, especially for small – and middle –sized firms. It has achieved rapid economic growth and nearly full employment at high wages, with interesting work and career opportunities for workers, both men and women. The social conditions which allowed the development of this ‘decentralization of production’ have been extensively debated both in Italy and outside. Other success stories include the regions of Baden Wurttemberg in Germany and West Jutland in Denmark. Successful industrial economies have moved towards decentralized flexible production partly for economic reasons (markets are more fragmented and change faster) and partly for social or political reasons
(tailorism wastes workers’ talents, and they will no longer stand for it). But the shift is also closely related to new technologies, which make it possible to get the best of several worlds, the creative skill and adaptability of the artisan, the cheapness of mass production even when small quantities are needed, and precision of new technologies.

31. According to the passage, flexible specialization, among other things, would include
(A) Centralized decision – making
(B) Workers who take keen interest in quality and innovation.
(C) Exchange of ideas restricted to hierarchical boundaries.
(D) Decentralized decision-making restricted to manager.

32. According to the passage, which of the following has helped smaller firms to
compete with larger firms?
(A) New technologies
(B) High levels of employment
(C) High levels of unemployment
(D) Market niches

33. According to the passage, which of the following is not a true statement?
(A) Piore and Sabel introduced flexible specialization in Japan, Germany and Italy.
(B) Germany, Japan, and Italy were adopting more flexible production methods.
(C) Countries using fordist mass production were failing behind countries which
were using flexible production methods.
(D) Japan, Germany and Italy were able to benefit from new technologies.

34. Which of the following may be an appropriate title of the passage?
(A) Flexible Production Methods
(B) Flexible Specialization
(C) Industrial Districts
(D) Industrial Districts and Flexible Specializations.

35. Which of the following authors quoted in the passage suggested the idea that
employees prefer place where there is a high demand for their skills?
(A) Piore and Sabel
(B) Humphrey and Schmitz
(C) Alfred Marshall
(D) Pyke and Sengenberger

36. According to the passage, which of the following is characteristic of an ‘industrial
(A) An open community of firms and a segmented population of people.
(B) Segregation of production activities and daily life.
(C) Coexistence of competition and cooperation.
(D) Separation of exchange relations and hierarchical relations.

37. According to the author of the passage,
(A) A number of small firms in an industrial district is like a flexibly specialized
large firm.
(B) A flexibly specialized large firm is not similar to a network of small firms in an
industrial district.
(C) Smaller firms in an industrial district cannot achieve the economics of scale
similar to large firms.
(D) A whole industrial district can never be like a large firm.

38. According to the passage, which of the following is a true statement?
(A) Flexible specialization has renewed craft form of production.
(B) Flexible specialization has renewed mass production.
(C) Craft form of production was marginalized by fordist production methods.
(D) Craft form of production was renewed by fordist production methods.

39. The passage suggests that the term ‘industrial district’ was developed by
(A) Piore and Sabel
(B) Humphrey and Schmitz
(C) Alfred Marshall
(D) Giacomo Becattini

40. Which of the following is not a characteristic feature of ‘Third Italy’?
(A) Small and medium – sized firms
(B) Rapid economic growth
(C) Decentralization of production
(D) High level of unemployment

QUESTIONS 41 to 46
On studying government figures and several independent assessments, one observes that
in the past four years, Americans have spent an increasing portion of their salaries on health care and for the most part gotten less for their money. This has forced millions into the ranks of the uninsured or personal bankruptcy. One assessment reports that across the nation, workers’ costs for health insurance have risen by 36 percent since 2000, dwarfing the average 12.4 percent increase in earnings for
the same period. In 2000, 11.6 million Americans spent more than a quarter of their
income on medical costs. In 2004, this figure stands at 14.3 million. The news comes at a time when the KFF (a public health foundation) study found that many companies are dropping medical coverage entirely or reducing their benefit packages, while
taxpayers are subsidizing millions of people below the poverty line who have enrolled in the state-run insurance program. The hardest-hit have been low-income working families, Hispanics and people with chronic conditions such as diabetes, asthma or depression. “The cost of family health insurance is rapidly approaching the gross earnings of a fulltime minimum-wage worker,” said the president of the non-profit foundation, which compiled the data. “If these trends continue, workers and employers will find it increasingly difficult to pay for family health coverage, and every year the share of Americans who have employer-sponsored health coverage will fall.” In fact, that trend has already begun. From 2001 to 2004, the proportion of workers receiving health coverage through an employer fell from 65 percent to 61 percent. That decline translated into 5 million fewer jobs providing health benefits.
Needless to say, rising costs of insurance also has affected businesses which have decided to keep providing such health coverage benefits. According to a survey of 900 businesses by NHR Consulting, there has been a 9.6 percent increase in health care spending per employee in 2005. A variety of factors have conspired to create a financial crunch in the medical sector not seen since 1992. A recession, followed by tepid economic growth, an aging population and expensive new tests and treatments; have all contributed. However, experts believe that an even more fundamental phenomenon is at the heart of what they term an “unsustainable” system. Both the public and government leaders “are too accepting of the notion everyone should get all the medical care they like,” said Goldberg, president of the Centre for Change, a non-profit policy research group. “I don’t think any country can afford that.” In many instances, the care is not only expensive but wasteful, he added, citing research casting doubt on the value of certain types of treatments and full-body scans. Seymour, another expert on the subject, says that pure financial analysis reveals that the health care system is broken. He added, however, that medical breakthroughs (some of which are hard-to-quantify) have helped offset some of the burden of rising costs. He pointed to newer diagnostic tests, less-invasive surgery and prescription medications as evidence that the typical patient gets more for the health care dollar today, and that, in turn, reverberates throughout the economy. In years past, clinically depressed people “could not get out of bed in the morning, could not go to work, or if they did, had problem interactions with co-workers,” he said. With medication, “those people today are productive members of society who go to work and pay taxes.” For four straight years, Americans have paid double-digit increases in health insurance premiums, bringing the price for a typical family of four to nearly $10,000. Naturally, this has led to an increase in the number of uninsured families. This affects everyone. Patients without insurance typically avoid going to a doctor and when they decide to, they have to wait longer to see a physician and frequently end up receiving care at an emergency room, where charges are higher. (taken from The Washington Post, 2004 )

41. Which of the following statements is true according to the representative of one of the major non-profit organisations?

(A) The cost of buying insurance of the family is now equal to the earnings of an
average employee in any organisation.
(B) If one works full time and if one is paid exactly at minimum wages, then one’s entire earnings will be needed to pay for one’s own insurance.
(C) Everyone will need to work in a family if the aim is to pay the insurance
premiums for the whole family.
(D) If a family’s insurance cost is borne by the employer, the employee will
effectively have received a benefit equivalent to the gross earnings of a full
time minimum wage worker.
(E) Working at minimum wages will no longer be possible for workers with
families as rising insurance premiums will necessitate increased wages.

42. What is the paradox put forth in the passage in terms of insurance costs and medical
(A) Americans who can afford insurance costs are surprisingly choosing to stay
uninsured and thus becoming ineligible for medical benefits.
(B) Poor Americans need greater medical benefits due to their poor medical health
status and it is this most needy lot that is usually uninsured.
(C) People who are insured are treated worse than those who are uninsured when it
comes to getting medical benefits.
(D) In spite of the rise in quality of medical treatment, the number of people who
are uninsured is rising every year.
(E) People pay higher insurance premiums year after year and yet end up receiving
fewer benefits per dollar spent.

43. In what way, according to Seymour, has the burden of rising medical costs been
partially offset?
(A) Medical insurance takes care of part of the medical costs and thus helps in
offsetting the burden on the individual.
(B) People, who would have been rendered unfit for work due to certain medical
conditions, can now be treated and can thus contribute productively to the
economy. In this way, part of the rising medical costs has been offset.
(C) People pay higher insurance premiums and thus insurance is able to pay a
larger part of the total medical bill, thus taking care of rising medical costs.
(D) Over time, due to rise in inflation the same medical costs start seeming
relatively lower.
(E) None of the above.

44. Which of the following have been most affected due to the rising insurance premiums?
(A) Certain ethnic groups such as Hispanic families and also low income families.
(B) Business houses which have now decided to continue providing medical benefits.
(C) People who typically do not buy insurance and hence suffer most due to rising
medical prices.
(D) Insurance companies who have suffered business losses.
(E) Middle – income families which are neither poor enough to clearly stop paying
the premium nor rich enough to afford it easily.

45. What according to experts is the fundamental flaw in the thought process of policy
(A) Government and public leaders are doling out insurance and medical benefits
and hoping that they will gain popularity.
(B) The policy makers believe that all human beings are created equal.
(C) The policy makers believe that every citizen has the right to medical care of
every sort according to their will.
(D) There is no government control over the insurance premiums being announced
by various companies.
(E) Medical costs are rising and at times expensive and wasteful medical treatment
is being provided by hospitals.

46. The causes for the financial slump in the medical sector are:
(A) The youth which is unwilling to spend on insurance, a period of low economic
growth and expensive medical treatment.
(B) Fewer number of people buying insurance, rising medical costs and tax
(C) New and wasteful medical treatment which has disillusioned customers.
(D) Subsidies given to below poverty line families which end up spending more
than insured families and increasing premiums.
(E) Changing population demographics, a period of low economic growth and
expensive medical treatment.

DIRECTIONS: Answer questions 47 to 61 independent of each other

47. “The Idea of Justice” is a book written by…………..
(A) Amartya Sen
(B) N.R.Narayana Murthy
(C) Nandan Nilekani
(D) Khushwant Singh
48. e-Choupal is an initiative by ________ and is aimed at providing information to
farmers in order to reduce their exploitation by middlemen.
(A) National Knowledge Network
(B) Hindustan Unilever Limited
(C) ITC Limited
(D) Grameen Bank

49. Which of the following is/are the key features of Indian Economy which were
highlighted during the presentation of the Interim Budget 2009-10?
I. Despite global financial crisis the GDP growth rate in current financial year has
been 7.1 percent.
II. Indian economy was adjudged as second fastest growing economy in the world.
III. A provision of Rs. 100 crores is made in the annual plan 2009-10 for setting up
Unique Identification Authority of India.
(A) Only (1)
(B) Only (II)
(C) Only (III)
(D) All (1), (II), (II)
(E) None of these

50. The depreciation in the Indian rupee in 2008 was primarily due to
(A) Changing price of petroleum
(B) Decline in exports
(C) Inflation
(D) Withdrawal by FIIs

51. The merger of which of the following two Indian companies took place in recent
past that is termed as “largest ever merger in India’s Corporate History”?
(A) State Bank of India and its seven associate banks
(B) Tata Motors and Ashok Leyland
(C) Reliance Industries and Reliance Petroleum Ltd.
(D) None of these

52. It started its operations in 1997 as the India-based business process services
operation for GE Capital. In 2005, with equity investments from General Atlantic
and Oak Hill Capital Partners, it became an independent company and was
rebranded to the present name. Today it is the largest BPO Company of India. Name
the company.
(A) Ajooba
(B) ICICI One Source
(C) Genpact
(D) Motif

53. The first mechanical form of this machine was developed and built by Luther
George Simjian and installed in 1939 in the New York City by the Citi Bank of New
York , but removed after 6 months due to lack of customer acceptance. De La Rue
developed the first electronic form of this machine, which was installed first in
Enfield Town in North London, United Kingdom on 27 June 1967 by Barclays
Bank. Which machine are we talking about?
(A) Automated Teller Machine
(B) Asynchronous Transfer ModeMachine
(C) Amateur Telescope Making Machine
(D) None of these

54. Who is the creator of this mascot?
(A) Shekhar Gurera
(B) Bal Thackeray
(C) R K Laxman
(D) None of these

55. Which management guru put forth the ‘525 rule’?
(A) Dipak Jain
(B) Sumantra Ghosal
(C) C K Prahalad
(D) Peter F. Drucker

56. When translated in Korean what does Daewoo mean?
(A) Great Universe
(B) People’s Product
(C) Great Strides
(D) None of these

57. As of October 2009, the BSE sensex has reached an all time high of ‘X’ points.
X is …
(A) greater than 19000 and less than 20000.
(B) greater than 20000 and less than 21000.
(C) greater than 21000 and less than 22000.
(D) greater than 22000 and less than 23000.

58. Green Banking means…..
(A) financing of irrigation projects by banks.
(B) development of forestry by banks.
(C) financing of environmental friendly projects by banks.
(D) All of the above.

59. Which Indian Bank was the first Indian Financial Institution to receive the ISO 9002
(A) State Bank of India
(B) Central Bank of India
(C) Reserve Bank of India

60. The euro symbol is inspired from which Greek letter?
(A) Epsilon
(B) Alpha
(C) Omega
(D) None of these

61. Which of the following is not appropriately matched?
I. A great way to fly- Singapore Airlines
II. There is no better way to fly- Lufthansa
III. Simplify- Air Deccan
IV. Fly the good times- Kingfisher
(A) I&II
(B) I only
(C) None of these
(D) All of these

DIRECTIONS: Answer questions 62 to 71 independent of each other

62. In the library, Vijay observes a woman sitting at a table by herself. A man comes up
and sits at the other end of the table. The woman frowns and shakes her head “no.”
The man gets up and moves to another table. Vijay concludes that the woman did
not want to share a study table. The theoretical perspective Vijay is using
(A) The conflict perspective
(B) The functional perspective
(C) The interactionist perspective
(D) None of these

63. Which of the following is an example of “master status”?
(A) Management Graduate
(B) Elementary School Teacher
(C) Prime Minister
(D) Woman

64. Which founding sociologist identified the bourgeoisie and proletariat classes?
(A) Herbert Spencer
(B) Max Weber
(C) Karl Marx
(D) Emile Durkheim

65. Who among the following is the author of the book “Dreams from My Father: A
Story of Race and Inheritance”?
(A) Barack Obama
(B) Nelson Mandela
(C) Danny Boyle
(D) John Evans Aatta Mills
66. ‘Due to human societal improvements, over time human population will have an
exponential growth and this growth will in turn be checked by famine and disease.’
This theory was first put forth by ____________.
(A) Dr. Robert Thomas Malthus
(B) Charles Darwin
(C) C. Rajagopalachari
(D) Adam Smith

67. Ram eats two pizzas for lunch. The marginal benefit that Ram gets from the second
pizza is the
(A) maximum amount that she is willing to pay for two pizzas
(B) opportunity cost of producing two pizzas
(C) maximum amount that he is willing to pay for the second pizza
(D) opportunity cost of producing the second pizza

68. According to figures released by the Central Statistical Organisation (CSO) on
August 31, 2009, the GDP growth (economy growth) in the first quarter (April –
June) of the 2009-10 fiscal was…………
(A) 7.8%
(B) 6.1%
(C) 6.7
(D) 9%

69. If a person is 54 years old, which of stages in the Life Course is she/he in?
(A) Young Adulthood
(B) Early Middle Years
(C) Later Middle Years
(D) Early Older Years

70. Which business guru postulated the I-theory?
(A) Ram Charan
(B) Arindham Chaudhuri
(C) Nitin Nohria
(D) C. K Prahalad

71. The theory of ‘Transactional analysis’ was propounded by:
(A) Sigmund Freud
(B) Carl Rogers
(C) Eric Berne
(D) Kurt Lewin

Directions (Questions 72 and 73)
In each question below is given a statement followed by two assumptions numbered I and II. An assumption is something supposed or taken for granted. You have to consider the statement and the following assumptions and decide which assumptions are implicit in the statement.

72. Statement: “ A good HR Executive has to be task oriented as well as people oriented”
I. Some HR Executives are task oriented
II. Some HR Executives are people oriented.
(A) If only Assumption I is implicit
(B) If only Assumption II is implicit
(C) If either Assumption I or II is implicit
(D) If neither Assumption I nor II is implicit
(E) If both Assumption I and II are implicit

73. Statement: “A good manager must draw the most from each worker”.
I. It is possible to get the maximum from each worker.
II. Managers are expected to get the best from their workers
(A) If only Assumption I is implicit
(B) If only Assumption II is implicit
(C) If either Assumption I or II is implicit
(D) If neither Assumption I nor II is implicit
(E) If both Assumption I and II are implicit

Directions: The following vignette applies to the next TWO questions (74 & 75)
A company had many positions in its hierarchy and many pay ranges since each position in the company had a very narrowly defined pay range. Thus, the only way an employee got higher pay was when he/she got promotion to the next position in the hierarchy. To change this, the company decided to have just a few but broad pay ranges and fewer positions in the hierarchy too.

74. This practice of having fewer but broader pay ranges is called ________.
(A) Broadbasing
(B) Pay broadening
(C) Broadbanding
(D) Range widening

75. Due to the above mentioned change, it becomes possible for the company to …
(A) give fewer pay raises.
(B) hire employees on a per man day basis.
(C) have a much lower salary bill.
(D) increase an employee’s pay without giving him/her a promotion.

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